L6Control
1. The maculae provide information about

D) A & B
B) Dynamic equilibrium
A) Static equilibrium
E) A, B & C
C) Auditory signals

2. Rotation around the Z axis is known as



rile
tawn
roll
pitch
yaw

3. When an infant is held in the prone position, the entire body forms a convex upward arc; gentle pressure on the head or gravity flexes the neck and hip, reversing the arc.

Babinski reflex
Landau Reflex
Rooting reflex
Moro reflex
Grasp reflex

4. Medial nerve efferents from the medial nucleus....

C) Stabilize the retinal image
A) Orientate the head
D) A & B
E) A & C
B) Maintain upright body posture

5. Afferents from otoliths of utricle and saccule project to ____________ nucleus which in turn projects to ____________ motor neurons

medial, neck/body trunk
lateral, cerebellum and limb
lateral, neck/body trunk
distal, cerebellum and limb
medial, cerebellum and limb

6. A structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear. It is composed of a combination of a gelatinous matrix and calcium carbonate crystals.

Oricle
Auricle
Ostolith
Autolith
Otolith

7. damage caused by drugs or chemicals e.g. antibiotics, anti-cancers, diuretics, aspirin, quinines, metals, xylene, toluene. Usually involves damage of the vestibulocochlear nerve.

Meniere's Syndrome
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Ototoxicity
Medulloblastoma
Vestibular neuritis, brainstaem carcinoma, infarction & haemorrhage

8. The movement of an object through space (pick the best fit)

Linear acceleration
Rotational Motion
Translational motion
Angular acceleration
Reciprocating motion

9. Imagine the A) saggital, B) coronal and C) transverse planes each having a corresponding line trhough the centre of the head. Now link them correctly to 1) Yaw, 2) Pitch and 3) Roll

A3, B2, C1
A1, B2, C3
A2, B3, C1
A2, B1, C3
A3, B1, C2

10. The sensory receptors of the vestibular system are located within the

outer ear
inner ear
middle ear
cochlea
brain

11. The walls of both the saccule and the utricle contain a small thickened region called a __________ which is a receptor for static equilibrium

otolith
cupula
ampulla
vestibule
macula

12. Rotation around the Y axis is known as



rile
tawn
roll
pitch
yaw

13. Within the maculae, hair cells possess tufts of cilia that penetrate into gelatinous calcium carbonate crystals known as the ____________

Kinocilium
Vestibular branches
Stereocilium
Otolithic membrane
Crista membrane

14. Translational motion and linear acceleration are detected mainly by the

A) Utricle
D) A & C
B) Semicircular canals
E) A & B
C) Saccule

15. Rotation around the X axis is known as



rile
tawn
roll
pitch
yaw

16. The fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear

endolymph
Labolymph
otolymph
otalymph
Exolymph

17. The _______________ allows us to sense directions of rotation: e.g. while the right horizontal canal stimulation increases during head rotations to the right, the left horizontal canal stimulation decreases.

lateralization mechanism
Rhomboid mechanism
push-pull mechanism
Cortigenous mechanism
Tympanic mechanism

18. The macula in the utricle is __________ and the macula in the saccule is __________

horizontal, horizontal
vertical, vertical
vertical, horizontal
horizontal, diagonal
horizontal, vertical

19. The three semicircular ducts each contain a(n) ____________ which in turn contain cupulae, hair bundles and cristae

Ampulla
Scala
Utricle
Otic pit
Cochlea

20. This system responds to a challenge without having to be affected by it first

Postural instability
Feedback postural adjustment
Feedforward postural adjustment

21. caused by calcium carbonate crystals dislodged from otoliths that float into canals. Movement within canal gives illusion of movement and disorientation, dizziness

Meniere's Syndrome
Vestibular neuritis, brainstaem carcinoma, infarction & haemorrhage
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Medulloblastoma
Ototoxicity

22. The oval central portion of the bony labrynth of the ear

cochlea
vestibule
sacculus
ampule
semicircular canal

23. The ampullary nerve is activated mainly by

A) Rotational acceleration
D) A or B
B) Rotational deceleration
E) A, B or C
C) Linear acceleration

24. The vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve is made up of three branches, the ___________ nerves

utricular, saccular and ampollary
urticular, saccular and ampullary
utricular, saccular and ampullary
utricular, saccular and ampillary
utricular, sacculist and ampullary

25. The vestibule contains the

D. A & B
B. Bony labrynth
C. Saccule
E. A & C
A. Utricle

26. Within the maculae, hair cells are made up of

B. Otoliths
A. Kinocilium
C. Stereocilia
E. A, B & C
D. A & C

27. Afferents from cupula of semicircular canal project to ____________ nucleus which in turn projects to ____________ motor neurons

medial, cerebellum and limb
lateral, cerebellum and limb
lateral, neck/body trunk
distal, cerebellum and limb
medial, neck/body trunk

28. Rotational motion and angular acceleration are detected mainly by the...

C) Saccule
A) Utricle
B) Semicircular canals
E) A & B
D) A & C

29. The rate of change of speed of rotation of a spinning sody

Rotational Motion
Translational motion
Linear acceleration
Reciprocating motion
Angular acceleration

30. lead(s) to disrupted postural control secondary to vestibular system damage

Meniere's Syndrome
Ototoxicity
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Medulloblastoma
Vestibular neuritis, brainstaem carcinoma, infarction & haemorrhage

31. symptoms of pressure, earache, tinnitus & dizziness. Episodes of falling, patient feels ‘pushed over’. Cause is increased volume endolymph, rupturing of membranous labyrinth

Vestibular neuritis, brainstaem carcinoma, infarction & haemorrhage
Meniere's Syndrome
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Medulloblastoma
Ototoxicity

32. childhood tumor growth within cerebellum. Patient unable to utilize relevant lateral vestibular information arising from utricles and saccules leads to postural instability.

Vestibular neuritis, brainstaem carcinoma, infarction & haemorrhage
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Meniere's Syndrome
Medulloblastoma
Ototoxicity

33. Lateral nerve efferents from the lateral nucleus...

C) Stabilize the retinal image
A) Orientate the head
D) A & B
E) A & C
B) Maintain upright body posture

34. A reflex eye movement that stabilizes images on the retina during head movement by producing an eye movement in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the center of the visual field.

Occulo-vestibular reflex
Vestiege reflex
Occulomotor reflex
Vestibulo-ocular reflex
Vestibulatory reflex

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